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Croatian-Mongolian relations
Map indicating locations of Croatia and Mongolia
50x45px
Croatia
Flag of Mongolia.svg
Mongolia

Croatian-Mongolian relations refers to the historic and current bilateral relationship between Croatia and Mongolia. Both countries established diplomatic relations on March 10, 1993.[1] Croatia is represented in Mongolia through its embassy in Beijing, China. Mongolia has an honorary consulate in Zagreb.

Ancient historyEdit

It was only in the 20th century that the current officially recognised states of both Mongolia and Croatia came into existence.[citation needed] Yet recorded contacts between peoples from the two territories stretch back to the 13th century. During the Mongol invasion of Europe from 1241 to 1242, there was contact between Mongolians and Croatians when they fought battles in Pannonia and Dalmatia.

The Mongols entered Croatia from Lake Balaton in Hungary then crossed the Drava river and captured Zagreb.[2]

In March 1242 at Klis Fortress in Croatia, the Mongols experienced their first European failure.[3] They pursued Béla IV of Hungary from town to town in Dalmatia in Croatia.[4] The Croatian nobility and Dalmatian towns such as Trogir and Rab helped Béla IV to escape.[4] After this failure, the Mongols retreated and Béla IV rewarded the Croatian towns and nobility.[4] Only the town of Split did not help Béla IV in his escape.[4]

The mountainous terrain of Croatian Dalmatia was difficult for the Mongols, they suffered losses when ambushed by the Croats in mountain passes. The death of Ögedei Khan in 1241 led to the Mongols retreating from Croatia in 1242.[4]

Modern historyEdit

Prior to 1990, six Mongolian students had graduated from Zagreb universities with degrees in tourism, economics and civil engineering.[5] Three medical doctors received advanced training in Croatia in 1994 and in 1996 with support from the World Health Organization. Two employees of the Cultural Heritage Center of Mongolia studied in Croatia in 2008 with a scholarship provided by the Croatian Ministry of Sciences and Education.[5]

In 2001, Mongolia repaid a US$148,496.50 loan to Croatia.[6]

In 2007, the two countries signed a memorandum of a cooperation, asserting a desire to strengthen economic and cultural ties.[7]

In 2008 Croatian President Stipe Mesic visited Mongolia at the invitation of Mongolian President Nambaryn Enkhbayar.[8] Mesic met with Sanjaa Bayar, the Prime Minister of Mongolia. Nambaryn Enkhbayar, the Mongolian President said that Mongolia would support Croatia's bid to be a non-permanent member of the UN Security Council.[5][9][10] Mesic and Enkhbayar agreed that there was "great potentials for cooperation in many areas, including education, oil resources exploitation, infrastructure development, water resources research, [and] exports of medicines".[11] While in Mongolia Mesic met with Mongolian Prime Minister Sanjaa Bayar and Parliament Speaker Danzangin Lundejantsan.[10][12] During his 2008 visit to Mongolia, President Mesic signed a Memorandum on Understanding between the Croatian Trade and Investment Promotion Agency and the Mongolian Foreign Trade and Foreign Investment Agency.[13] It was the Croatian president’s first trip to Mongolia.[14]

See also Edit

ReferencesEdit

  1. "Mongolia-Croatia". Embassy of Mongolia in Wien. http://www.embassymon.at/index.html. Retrieved 2009-05-10. 
  2. Stephen Turnbull (2003). Genghis Khan & the Mongol Conquests 1190-1400. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 1841765236. http://books.google.com/books?id=N2MMD0yfxyAC&pg=PA53&lpg=PA53&dq=mongols+in+croatia&source=bl&ots=psJWIv1r1f&sig=rraonf72MpcK2i14plfUqe0M7ig&hl=en&ei=3CToS-ukJIKB8gaVyrynDQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=6&ved=0CDYQ6AEwBQ#v=onepage&q=mongols%20in%20croatia&f=false. "The Mongol way now led via Lake Balaton to a crossing of the Drava river into Croatia. The Mongols soon captured Zagreb, and before very long they were in ..." 
  3. Marcus Tanner (2001). Croatia: a nation forged in war. Yale University Press. ISBN 0300091257. http://books.google.com/books?id=XC707lnO0kIC&pg=PA21&dq=Mongol+invasion+Croatia+Bela+IV&ei=BxULSrqJK5viygTOhbjDDg. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 Knjiga Prva (1982) (in Croatian). History of the Croats. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 "President of Croatia to Arrive Today". Montsame News Agency. http://www.croatianworldcalendar.com/index.php?option=com_events&task=view_detail&agid=692&year=2008&month=08&day=02&Itemid=26. Retrieved 2009-05-10. "The President of Croatia, Mr. Stepan Mesich will arrive in Mongolia today (Saturday) to pay a three-day state visit at the invitation of his counterpart N.Enkhbayar. Mr. Mesich will land at 10:15 p.m. at the international airport of Ulaanbaatar city. It is the first summit state visit that will be paid by the Croatian side since establishment of the diplomatic relations between Mongolia and Croatia. ..." 
  6. "Mongolia: Report on issues discussed at cabinet's meeting". E-mail Daily News via the BBC. August 14, 2001. http://nl.newsbank.com/nl-search/we/Archives?p_product=NewsLibrary&p_multi=BBAB&d_place=BBAB&p_theme=newslibrary2&p_action=search&p_maxdocs=200&p_topdoc=1&p_text_direct-0=0F97A3DFF4BE401E&p_field_direct-0=document_id&p_perpage=10&p_sort=YMD_date:D&s_trackval=GooglePM. Retrieved 2009-05-10. "The cabinet instructed Finance Minister Ch. Ulaan to settle the payment of the balance of the loan from Croatia totalling 148,496.50 [figure as received] US dollars." 
  7. "Cultural cooperation between Croatia and Mongolia". Croatian World Network (CROWN). http://www.croatia.org/crown/articles/9097/1/Cultural-cooperation-between-Croatia-and-Mongolia.html. Retrieved 2009-05-10. "A memorandum of acceptance between Croatian Ministry of Culture and Mongolian Ministry of Education, Culture and Science has been signed, in order to achieve development and stronger cooperation in art and culture." 
  8. "Croatian president starts Asian tour". Business Mongolia via HINA. August 3, 2008. http://www.business-mongolia.com/?tag=sbayar&paged=5. Retrieved 2010-05-09. "Mesic started his first official visit to Mongolia, at the invitation of Mongolian President Nambaryn Enkhbayar, the Croatian news agency HINA reported." 
  9. "Mongolia, Croatia to boost co-op". Xinhua. August 5, 2008. http://www.business-mongolia.com/?p=449. Retrieved 2010-05-08. "Enkhbayar said Mongolia will support Croatia in its bid to be anon-permanent member of the UN Security Council. Mesic also met with Mongolian Prime Minister Sanj Bayar on Monday...." 
  10. 10.0 10.1 "Croatia's Mesic visits Mongolia, China". Southeastern Europe Times. 2008-08-05. http://www.setimes.com/cocoon/setimes/xhtml/en_GB/features/setimes/roundup/2008/08/05/roundup-dd-04. Retrieved 2009-05-10. 
  11. "Leaders of Mongolia, Croatia discuss economic cooperation". HINA news agency. August 4, 2008. http://nl.newsbank.com/nl-search/we/Archives?p_product=NewsLibrary&p_multi=BBAB&d_place=BBAB&p_theme=newslibrary2&p_action=search&p_maxdocs=200&p_topdoc=1&p_text_direct-0=122601922D674A80&p_field_direct-0=document_id&p_perpage=10&p_sort=YMD_date:D&s_trackval=GooglePM. Retrieved 2010-05-09. 
  12. "Croatian president meets top Mongolian officials". HINA at BBC News. August 4, 2008. http://nl.newsbank.com/nl-search/we/Archives?p_product=NewsLibrary&p_multi=BBAB&d_place=BBAB&p_theme=newslibrary2&p_action=search&p_maxdocs=200&p_topdoc=1&p_text_direct-0=12260193949BB608&p_field_direct-0=document_id&p_perpage=10&p_sort=YMD_date:D&s_trackval=GooglePM. Retrieved 2009-05-10. "..." 
  13. "Enhbajar: INA and Mongolian oil company to conclude agreement". SEEbiz and HINA. http://www.seebiz.eu/en/politics/enhbajar-ina-and-mongolian-oil-company-to-conclude-agreement,21936.html. Retrieved 2009-05-10. "." 
  14. "Mesic visits Mongolia to 'foster links with Croatia'". Business Mongolia. August 6, 2008. http://www.business-mongolia.com/?p=452. Retrieved 2010-05-09. 

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